A deciduous shrub or small tree of moist woodland and scrub, streamsides and shaded rocky places; also in fen-carr in East Anglia. It occurs on a wide variety of soil types, but is most frequent on damp calcareous or base-rich substrates, and avoids very dry or very acidic conditions. It spreads by fruit and suckers, often forming thickets. 0-650 m (Dove Crag, Westmorland).
A deciduous tree grown in gardens and found naturalised in woodland and on banks. It reproduces vigorously by suckers, although seed is produced abundantly and some seedlings have been observed. Lowland.
A deciduous tree found on rubbish tips and waste ground, where it is introduced with discarded fruit. It is also occasionally planted on roadsides and occurs as a relic of cultivation. Lowland.
A small or medium-sized tree, commonly planted in gardens and found naturalised in woodland and hedgerows, and on roadside verges, riversides and heaths. Reproduction is by seed and the species can sometimes become invasive. Lowland.
A deciduous tree widely planted on roadsides and in parks. It also occurs as a relic of cultivation. Lowland.
A deciduous shrub or small tree of open woodlands, scrub, hedgerows, screes and cliff-slopes; a prostrate form also occurs on shingle beaches. It grows on a wide variety of soils. It reproduces by seed, and spreads vegetatively by suckers, often forming dense thickets. In many areas, native populations have been augmented by deliberate planting in hedgerows and copses. 0-500 m (Cross Fell, Cumberland).