An annual or short-lived perennial herb of open, disturbed sites, occurring in short grassland in pastures, roadsides, waysides and field margins, and as a casual on waste ground. It usually grows on dry, often mildly basic soils, but has been recorded on fen-peat. Lowland.
A mat-forming biennial or short-lived perennial herb found as a garden escape or throw-out on roadside banks, railways, sand dunes, waste ground and rubbish tips. Populations are usually casual, but can persist for a few years. Lowland, but reaching 330 m at Garrigill (Cumberland).
A perennial herb of dry, usually base-rich, soils overlying chalk and limestone, mica-schist or basalt; sometimes on metal-rich mining spoil or sandy soils and dunes. It can occur in short, closed grassland, but prefers an open sward broken by bare rock or soil. It also occurs as a garden escape. 0-355 m (Parsley Hay, Derbys.).
A mat-forming perennial herb that is infrequently grown in gardens and has become naturalised on grassy sand dunes in St Ouen`s Bay, Jersey (Channel Islands), where it was possibly deliberately introduced. Lowland.
This densely tufted perennial herb is now mainly confined to high, inaccessible crevices and ledges on Carboniferous limestone cliffs, though it is also found in tightly-grazed, species-rich limestone turf. It reproduces only by seed. Lowland.
A tufted perennial herb found naturalised on roadside banks and railway cuttings, especially on well-drained soils overlying chalk and limestone, and on old mortared walls. It also occurs rarely as a casual on rubbish tips. Lowland.