A deciduous tree of plantations, shelter-belts and parkland, grown in open situations, but not in very dry or waterlogged sites. It regenerates from seed freely, especially onto disturbed soil or rocky ground, and may become naturalised on crags. 0?660 m (S. of Garrigill, Westmorland).
A deciduous tree of plantations and woodland. It is fertile and can back-cross with either parent, and regeneration from seed is frequent. Generally lowland, but upper altitudinal limit unknown.