A procumbent perennial of heaths, dry banks, woodland borders and field edges, usually on well-drained acidic soils, but avoiding podsols. It can also occur on waste ground and railway embankments. 0?410 m (Fron Hill, Rads.).
This hybrid occurs in the vicinity of the parents, rarely in isolation from them, on heaths, dry banks, woodland borders and field edges, usually on well-drained acidic soils. It is partially sterile, but a few achenes may be formed. Generally lowland, but upper altitudinal limit unknown.
A stoloniferous perennial herb, occurring on dry, damp or periodically inundated soils in open grassy swards or on bare ground. Habitats include land subject to seasonal inundation with fresh or brackish water, upper saltmarsh, shorelines, dunes, rough ground and roadsides. It spreads vigorously by stolons, but fruiting is often poor. Generally lowland, but reaching 580 m at Hartside (Cumberland), and exceptionally at 845 m (Great Dun Fell, Westmorland).
A perennial herb of dry, freely-draining, gravelly or sandy soils, found in open grassy swards on commons, in pastures, on banks, in pits and on tracks and waste ground. Reproduction is by seed, but it does not readily colonise new sites. Lowland.
A perennial herb of dry base-rich rock faces, cliffs and ledges, close-grazed calcareous grassland and, occasionally, river shingle. It is a pseudogamous apomict, reproducing mostly by seed, with very limited vegetative spread. Generally montane, reaching 1065 m on Ben Lawers (Mid Perth), but descending to 250 m in Assynt (W. Sutherland).
A perennial herb found in a wide variety of habitats on more or less acidic soils, including lowland, upland and montane grassland, hay- and fen-meadows, moorland and heathland, blanket and raised mires, open woodland, wood borders and hedge banks. It is unpalatable to stock. 0-1040 m (Carrantuohill, S. Kerry).
A perennial herb found in a variety of acidic habitats on peaty or skeletal mineral soils. Typical habitats include heathland, moorland, rocks and rock ledges, and occasionally grassland. Found at a range of altitudes but predominantly upland, reaching 920 m on Coire an Lochan (Easterness).
In England, this shrub is found on basic, damp rock ledges and silty, sandy or gravelly river-flats liable to inundation. In Ireland, it occurs in rocky places subject to flooding, usually around loughs and turloughs. It also occurs as a garden escape or relic in waste places. 0-700 m (Pillar, Cumberland).
A perennial herb that is grown in gardens and occurs as a naturalised or casual escape on waste ground. Lowland.
A biennial or short-lived perennial herb, found as a casual or naturalised grain alien in grassy places and waste ground. Lowland.