A large perennial herb which occurs as a naturalised garden escape in woodland and hedgerows and on river banks and roadsides. Lowland.
A long-lived perennial herb of unimproved grassland, lane-sides, road verges and disturbed ground on well-drained soils overlying chalk and limestone. It is occasionally established from gardens or as a casual in waste places. Lowland.
An annual which occurs in fields and on rubbish tips and waste ground. It arises from bird-seed, grain, grass-seed and wool shoddy. Lowland.
An aromatic perennial herb of open grassland on sunny banks, sand dunes and roadsides; usually on well-drained, base-rich soils, including sticky calcareous clays that are wet in winter and baked dry in summer. In S.E. England, it is often associated with churchyards because of the medieval practice of sowing it on graves (Sturt, 1995). In Ireland, it is almost exclusively coastal. Lowland.
A foetid perennial herb, usually casual, but sometimes naturalised, on road verges, waste ground and by railways. It arises as a garden escape or a grain contaminant. Lowland.
An annual which occurs as a garden escape or bird-seed alien on roadsides, rubbish tips and waste ground. It is usually casual, but some populations persist for a few years. Lowland.