Primula veris

Tracheophyta MagnoliopsidaPrimulaceaePrimulaPrimula veris


A perennial herb of well-drained, herb-rich grasslands on mesic to calcareous soils; less commonly on seasonally flooded soils, in scrub or woodland rides and edges, and on calcareous cliffs. 0-750 m (Knock Ore Gill, Westmorland), and exceptionally at 845 m (Great Dun Fell, Westmorland).



World Distribution

Eurosiberian Temperate element.

© K.J. Walker, BSBI

Broad Habitats

Light (Ellenberg): 7

Moisture (Ellenberg): 4

Reaction (Ellenberg): 7

Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 3

Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0

January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.7

July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 15.2

Annual Precipitation (mm): 900

Height (cm): 15

Perennation - primary


Life Form - primary




Clonality - primary

Little or no vegetative spread

Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 1632

Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 369

Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 6

Atlas Change Index: -0.32

Weighted Changed Factor: 9

Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)


JNCC Designations


Atlas text references

Atlas (201a) Antrobus S, Lack AJ
1993.  Genetics of colonising and established populations of Primula veris. Heredity. 71:252-258. Curtis TGF, McGough HN
1988.  The Irish Red Data Book. 1. Vascular Plants. Grime JP, Hodgson JG, Hunt R
1988.  Comparative Plant Ecology. Hultén E, Fries M
1986.  Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols. McKee J, Richards AJ
1998.  The effect of temperature on reproduction in five Primula species. Annals of Botany. 82:359-374. Meusel H, Jäger E, Rauschert S, Weinert E
1978.  Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 2. 2 vols.
Richards (1989