A rhizomatous perennial herb of woodlands, hedgerows and other shaded areas on moist, well-drained and reasonably fertile soils. Generally lowland, but reaching 425 m at Ystradfellte (Brecs.).
The distribution of A. maculatum shows little change since the 1962 Atlas. There has undoubtedly been some loss caused by hedgerow removal but this has been compensated for by its ability to establish itself quickly in new areas of suitable habitat such as scrub and plantations. Local floras suggest that A. maculatum is alien north of S. Northumberland and Cumbria.
European Temperate element.
Light (Ellenberg): 4
Moisture (Ellenberg): 5
Reaction (Ellenberg): 7
Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 7
Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0
January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.9
July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 15.3
Annual Precipitation (mm): 931
Height (cm): 50
Perennation - primary
Life Form - primary
Clonality - primary
Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 1604
Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 650
Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 11
Atlas Change Index: -0.28
Weighted Changed Factor: -2
Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)
Atlas text references
1993. The genus Arum.
1988. Comparative Plant Ecology.
1986. Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols.
1965. Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 1. 2 vols.
1949. Biological Flora of the British Isles. No. 27. Arum L., Arum maculatum L. Journal of Ecology. 37:207-219.