Arum maculatum

Tracheophyta MagnoliopsidaAraceaeArumArum maculatum


A rhizomatous perennial herb of woodlands, hedgerows and other shaded areas on moist, well-drained and reasonably fertile soils. Generally lowland, but reaching 425 m at Ystradfellte (Brecs.).



World Distribution

European Temperate element.

© M. Cotterill, IWNHAS

Broad Habitats

Broadleaved, mixed and yew woodland

Light (Ellenberg): 4

Moisture (Ellenberg): 5

Reaction (Ellenberg): 7

Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 7

Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0

January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.9

July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 15.3

Annual Precipitation (mm): 931

Height (cm): 50

Perennation - primary


Life Form - primary

Non-bulbous geophyte (rhizome, corm or tuber)



Clonality - primary

Rhizome shortly creeping

Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 1604

Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 650

Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 11

Atlas Change Index: -0.28

Weighted Changed Factor: -2

Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)


JNCC Designations


Atlas text references

Atlas (343b)
Boyce P
1993.  The genus Arum.
Grime JP, Hodgson JG, Hunt R
1988.  Comparative Plant Ecology.
Hultén E, Fries M
1986.  Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols.
Meusel H, Jäger E, Weinert E
1965.  Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 1. 2 vols.
Prime (1954
Sowter FA
1949.  Biological Flora of the British Isles. No. 27. Arum L., Arum maculatum L. Journal of Ecology. 37:207-219.