A deciduous shrub found in hedgerows and coppices, and on banks, cliffs and waste ground. Generally lowland, but reaching 395 m on Wanthwaite Crags (Cumberland).
B. vulgaris has been recorded from Neolithic deposits at Grimes Graves (W. Norfolk). It might be native in England and Wales, but it was cultivated in medieval times and later widely planted for hedging. All records are mapped as if they are native. Its deleterious effect on wheat crops was appreciated before it was known to be a host of the rust Puccinia graminis and consequently eradicated from many hedgerows in the 19th century.
European Temperate element; widely naturalised outside its native range.
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Light (Ellenberg): 7
Moisture (Ellenberg): 4
Reaction (Ellenberg): 8
Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 3
Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0
January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.4
July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 15.2
Annual Precipitation (mm): 892
Height (cm): 250
Perennation - primary
Life Form - primary
Clonality - primary
Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 974
Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 26
Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 1
Atlas Change Index: -0.61
Weighted Changed Factor: 13
Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)
External Species Accounts
Atlas text references
1986. Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols.
Jalas & Suominen (1991) .
1981. Grimes Graves, Norfolk excavations 1971-72: volume 1. Department of the Environment Archaeological Reports no. 11. .
1965. Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 1. 2 vols. .
1912. The Flora of Bristol.