A perennial, forming patches on disturbed, nutrient-rich soil around farm buildings and ruins, and on roadsides and waste ground. It also sometimes occurs in limestone grassland. 0-455 m (Helbeck Fell, Westmorland).
This species, present in Roman times, was once grown for its edible leaves. It can persist for many years but has decreased since the 1962 Atlas, where it was mapped as `all records`, perhaps because it is no longer being introduced and populations are gradually lost through a general tidying of ruderal habitats.
Native to the mountains of C. & S. Europe, where it grows in late snow-patches; naturalised in much of temperate Europe and in N. America.
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Light (Ellenberg): 8
Moisture (Ellenberg): 5
Reaction (Ellenberg): 7
Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 8
Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0
January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.4
July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 15.2
Annual Precipitation (mm): 883
Height (cm): 50
Perennation - primary
Life Form - primary
Clonality - primary
Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 1363
Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 81
Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 1
Atlas Change Index: -1.79
Weighted Changed Factor: -33
Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)
Atlas text references
1986. Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols.
Jalas & Suominen (1980)
1965. Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 1. 2 vols.
1986. Mountain Flora of Greece. Vol. 1.