An annual of disturbed, nutrient-rich waste ground and manure heaps, and on damp ground near the sea; it is also recorded on rubbish tips and around docks and wharves. Lowland.
This species was first recorded in the wild in 1713. There has been a marked decline since the 1962 Atlas. Most records are of small, casual populations or even single plants.
A Circumpolar Temperate species, but absent from eastern N. America; widely naturalised elsewhere.
Light (Ellenberg): 8
Moisture (Ellenberg): 6
Reaction (Ellenberg): 7
Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 9
Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 3
January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 4
July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 16.1
Annual Precipitation (mm): 724
Height (cm): 50
Perennation - primary
Life Form - primary
Clonality - primary
Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 157
Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 2
Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 2
Atlas Change Index: -1.32
Atlas text references
1986. Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols.
Jalas & Suominen (1980)
1965. Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 1. 2 vols.