An annual of disturbed cultivated ground, including gardens, especially on light, nutrient-rich soils. It has also been recorded on bare peat, on disturbed soil in newly coppiced woodland and in dried up ponds. Lowland.
There has been no change in overall range since the 1962 Atlas, but there are many more records.
Eurosiberian Temperate element; widely naturalised outside its native range.
Light (Ellenberg): 7
Moisture (Ellenberg): 6
Reaction (Ellenberg): 7
Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 8
Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0
January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.9
July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 16
Annual Precipitation (mm): 794
Height (cm): 50
Perennation - primary
Life Form - primary
Clonality - primary
Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 998
Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 8
Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 12
Atlas Change Index: 0.62
Weighted Changed Factor: 50
Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)
Atlas text references
1986. Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols.
Jalas & Suominen (1980)
1965. Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 1. 2 vols.