A rhizomatous perennial herb of freely-draining, nutrient-poor soils. It is most frequent in Fraxinus woods on limestone in N. and W. Britain, but also grows in the grikes of limestone pavement, in acidic woods in S.E. England, and in a fen in Cumbria. It is a common garden escape. 0-470 m (Carreg-goch, Brecs.).
The native distribution of C. majalis is probably stable, but is now very largely obscured by naturalised plants. It is often difficult to separate native and alien plants and the map must be regarded as an approximation. Many of the losses had occurred by 1930.
European Boreo-temperate element; also in E. Asia and widely naturalised outside its native range.
Light (Ellenberg): 5
Moisture (Ellenberg): 5
Reaction (Ellenberg): 6
Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 5
Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0
January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.3
July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 15.5
Annual Precipitation (mm): 831
Height (cm): 25
Perennation - primary
Life Form - primary
Clonality - primary
Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 439
Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 0
Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 0
Atlas Change Index: 0.25
Weighted Changed Factor: 32
Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)
Atlas text references
1986. Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols.
1996. Flora Britannica.
1965. Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 1. 2 vols.
1981. Woodland conservation and management.