Cynoglossum officinale

Tracheophyta MagnoliopsidaBoraginaceaeCynoglossumCynoglossum officinale


A biennial herb of disturbed ground, growing mostly on dry, often base-rich soils. Habitats include coastal dunes, shingle, open grassland, woodland margins and clearings, field edges, cleared land and gravelly waste. It is unpalatable to grazing animals and is often frequent on disturbed ground by rabbit warrens. Generally lowland, but reaching 400 m on Eglwyseg Rocks, Llangollen (Denbs.).



World Distribution

Eurosiberian Temperate element; widely naturalised outside its native range.

Broad Habitats

Light (Ellenberg): 8

Moisture (Ellenberg): 4

Reaction (Ellenberg): 8

Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 6

Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 1

January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.9

July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 15.8

Annual Precipitation (mm): 780

Height (cm): 75

Perennation - primary


Life Form - primary




Clonality - primary

Little or no vegetative spread

Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 718

Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 42

Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 5

Atlas Change Index: -1.09

Weighted Changed Factor: -20

Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)


JNCC Designations


Atlas text references

Atlas (211a)
Hultén E, Fries M
1986.  Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols.
de Jong TG, Klinkhamer PGL, Boorman LA
1990.  Biological Flora of the British Isles. No. 170. Cynoglossum officinale L. Journal of Ecology. 78:1123-1144.
Upadhyaya MK, Tilsner HR, Pitt MD
1988.  The biology of Canadian weeds. 87. Cynoglossum officinale L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 68:763-774.