A perennial herb of damp or wet habitats, on moderately fertile, neutral or calcareous substrates; it is characteristic of sites where water levels fluctuate and is absent from permanently waterlogged ground. Typical habitats include wet woodland, damp meadows, swamps and tall-herb fens, damp roadsides, ditches and railway banks, and montane tall-herb communities. It also occasionally grows in somewhat drier conditions, such as N.-facing chalk grassland. It is intolerant of grazing and rarely flowers in shade. 0-880 m (Breadalbanes, Mid Perth).
The distribution of F. ulmaria is stable.
Eurasian Boreo-temperate element; widely naturalised outside its native range.
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Light (Ellenberg): 7
Moisture (Ellenberg): 8
Reaction (Ellenberg): 6
Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 5
Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0
January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.5
July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 14.5
Annual Precipitation (mm): 1105
Height (cm): 120
Perennation - primary
Life Form - primary
Clonality - primary
Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 2692
Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 967
Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 3
Atlas Change Index: -0.1
Weighted Changed Factor: -1
Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)
Atlas text references
1988. Comparative Plant Ecology.
1957. The Flora of Wiltshire.
1986. Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols.
1965. Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 1. 2 vols.