A deciduous tree of woodland, scrub and hedgerows, especially on moist, basic soils, but also frequent on rock scars and cliffs, stabilised scree and the grikes of limestone pavement. It can tolerate periodically waterlogged soils, being found around springs and in Alnus and Salix carr. In managed woodland it may be grown as a timber tree or coppice. It is a rapid coloniser of waste ground, disused quarries and railway banks. 0-585 m (Cwm Idwal, Caerns.).
The range of F. excelsior is stable. In N. Scotland it is native on limestone and widely planted elsewhere; differentiating native from alien populations can be difficult.
European Temperate element.
There are no images in this gallery.
Light (Ellenberg): 5
Moisture (Ellenberg): 6
Reaction (Ellenberg): 7
Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 6
Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0
January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.6
July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 14.7
Annual Precipitation (mm): 1069
Height (cm): 2500
Perennation - primary
Life Form - primary
Clonality - primary
Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 2459
Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 930
Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 10
Atlas Change Index: -0.73
Weighted Changed Factor: -12
Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)
Atlas text references
1988. Comparative Plant Ecology.
1986. Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols.
1978. Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 2. 2 vols.
1980. Ancient woodland: its history, vegetation and uses in England.
1961. Biological Flora of the British Isles. No. 79. Fraxinus excelsior L. Journal of Ecology. 49:739-751.