A low-growing perennial herb of infertile acidic soils, occurring in grassland, on heaths, in rocky places and open woods, and locally on disturbed or derelict ground. 0-1215 m (Ben Lawers, Mid Perth).
This species remains abundant in upland areas, and is a useful indicator of unimproved hill grassland. However, it has declined locally in the lowlands as a result of habitat destruction.
Suboceanic Temperate element.
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Light (Ellenberg): 6
Moisture (Ellenberg): 6
Reaction (Ellenberg): 3
Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 3
Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0
January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.5
July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 14.3
Annual Precipitation (mm): 1148
Height (cm): 30
Perennation - primary
Life Form - primary
Clonality - primary
Comment on Clonality
Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 2489
Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 793
Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 9
Atlas Change Index: -0.15
Weighted Changed Factor: -28
Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)
Atlas text references
1962. La flore atlantique européenne. Documents pour les cartes des productions végétales serie Europe-Atlantique, vol. 1.
1988. Comparative Plant Ecology.
1986. Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols.
1992. Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 3. 2 vols.