Kickxia elatine

Tracheophyta MagnoliopsidaScrophulariaceaeKickxiaKickxia elatine


An annual of basic soils, including light soils over chalk and calcareous boulder-clay, found on the headlands and margins of arable fields (particularly cornfields), and less commonly on tracks, waste ground and in gardens. It is also found on sandy soils, and has been recorded on open peaty ground (Co. Cork). Lowland.



World Distribution

As an archaeophyte K. elatine has a European Southern-temperate distribution; it is widely naturalised outside this range.

© M. Cotterill, IWNHAS

Broad Habitats

Arable and horticultural (includes orchards, excludes domestic gardens)

Light (Ellenberg): 7

Moisture (Ellenberg): 4

Reaction (Ellenberg): 6

Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 5

Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0

January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 4.1

July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 16

Annual Precipitation (mm): 813

Height (cm): 25

Perennation - primary


Life Form - primary

Therophyte (annual land plant)



Clonality - primary

Little or no vegetative spread

Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 911

Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 41

Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 11

Atlas Change Index: -0.18

Weighted Changed Factor: 37

Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)


JNCC Designations


Atlas text references

Atlas (224b)
Curtis TGF, McGough HN
1988.  The Irish Red Data Book. 1. Vascular Plants.
Hultén E, Fries M
1986.  Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols.
Meusel H, Jäger E, Rauschert S, Weinert E
1978.  Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 2. 2 vols.