Linaria vulgaris

Tracheophyta MagnoliopsidaScrophulariaceaeLinariaLinaria vulgaris


This perennial herb is found in open grassy places, on stony and waste ground, hedge banks, road verges, railway embankments and cultivated land, especially on calcareous soils. It reproduces by seed and also spreads by creeping rhizomes. 0-360 m near Alston (Cumberland).



World Distribution

Eurasian Boreo-temperate element, but naturalised in N. America so distribution is now Circumpolar Boreo-temperate.

© P. Shannon

Broad Habitats

Light (Ellenberg): 7

Moisture (Ellenberg): 4

Reaction (Ellenberg): 8

Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 6

Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0

January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.6

July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 15.2

Annual Precipitation (mm): 935

Height (cm): 80

Perennation - primary


Life Form - primary




Clonality - primary

Clones formed by suckering from roots

Comment on Clonality

spreading by root buds but not very extensively (CPE); but probably enough to be 62

Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 1967

Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 81

Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 11

Atlas Change Index: -0.8

Weighted Changed Factor: -17

Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)


JNCC Designations


Atlas text references

Atlas (223c)
Grime JP, Hodgson JG, Hunt R
1988.  Comparative Plant Ecology.
Hultén E, Fries M
1986.  Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols.
Meusel H, Jäger E, Rauschert S, Weinert E
1978.  Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 2. 2 vols.
Saber MA, Clements DR, Hall MR, Doohan DJ, Crompton CW
1995.  The biology of Canadian weeds. 105. Linaria vulgaris Mill. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 75:525-537.