Lolium temulentum

Tracheophyta MagnoliopsidaPoaceaeLoliumLolium temulentum


An annual, formerly often a persistent weed of arable land. It is now a rare casual of waste places, originating from grain, bird-seed and wool shoddy. Lowland.



World Distribution

Perhaps native of the Mediterranean region and S.W. Asia, but native range obscured by its spread with cultivation; once widespread in Europe and naturalised in Japan, N. & S. America, Australasia and elsewhere.

Broad Habitats

Arable and horticultural (includes orchards, excludes domestic gardens)

Light (Ellenberg): 7

Moisture (Ellenberg): 4

Reaction (Ellenberg): 8

Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 7

Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0

January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 4

July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 15.6

Annual Precipitation (mm): 855

Height (cm): 90

Perennation - primary


Life Form - primary

Therophyte (annual land plant)



Clonality - primary

Little or no vegetative spread

Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 341

Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 37

Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 7

Atlas Change Index: -4.05

JNCC Designations


Atlas text references

Atlas (376b)
Curtis & McGough (1998)
Hultén E, Fries M
1986.  Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols.