A tuberous perennial herb of calcareous, well-drained soils. Habitats include grasslands, scrub, railway banks, roadsides, lawns, sand dunes and limestone pavement; also disturbed sites such as quarries, gravel-pits and industrial waste ground. 0-335 m (near Parsley Hay, Derbys.).
The overall distribution of this species in Britain is stable, but it has declined in Ireland, where many losses were before 1930. Declines are due to habitat destruction, especially ploughing of grassland and the in-filling of quarries. It is, however, much better recorded now, and readily colonises newly available sites.
Light (Ellenberg): 8
Moisture (Ellenberg): 4
Reaction (Ellenberg): 8
Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 3
Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0
January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.9
July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 15.7
Annual Precipitation (mm): 807
Height (cm): 45
Perennation - primary
Life Form - primary
Clonality - primary
Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 936
Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 182
Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 4
Atlas Change Index: 0.83
Weighted Changed Factor: 51
Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)
Atlas text references
1988. The Irish Red Data Book. 1. Vascular Plants. .
1991. Wild orchids of Dorset. .
1965. Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 1. 2 vols. .
1991. The orchids of Suffolk.
Wells & Cox (1989