Orobanche hederae

Tracheophyta MagnoliopsidaOrobanchaceaeOrobancheOrobanche hederae


An annual or perennial parasite which grows on the roots of Hedera helix, especially subsp. hibernica, and, rarely, on other cultivated Araliaceae. Its habitat is that of its host and includes coastal cliffs, open rocky woodland, quarries, hedge banks and other similar habitats. Lowland.



World Distribution

Submediterranean-Subatlantic element.

© K.J. Walker, BSBI

Broad Habitats

Light (Ellenberg): 4

Moisture (Ellenberg): 5

Reaction (Ellenberg): 6

Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 5

Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0

January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 4.9

July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 15.5

Annual Precipitation (mm): 1004

Height (cm): 60

Perennation - primary


Perennation - secondary


Life Form - primary

Non-bulbous geophyte (rhizome, corm or tuber)

Life Form - secondary

Therophyte (annual land plant)



Clonality - primary

Little or no vegetative spread

Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 160

Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 122

Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 11

Atlas Change Index: 0.2

JNCC Designations


Scarce Atlas Account

Scarce Atlas Account: 

Orobanche hederae Duby

Ivy broomrape

Status: scarce


O. hederae is a holoparasite of the Araliaceae, possibly restricted as a native to the Atlantic tetraploid cytotype of Hedera helix subsp. hibernica. Its distribution closely reflects that of its host (McAllister & Rutherford 1990). O. hederae is essentially a maritime plant of coastal cliffs, undercliff woodlands and hedgebanks, but extending inland in sheltered sites such as gorges. It is grown as a curiosity and persists in gardens, parklands and cemeteries often at wall bases and under hedges.

It is an annual, or perhaps more frequently perennial, plant, probably reliant on self pollination. It has a longer flowering season than any other British broomrape, from late May to October, and is unique in the asynchronous appearance of plants within populations.

There is no threat to the native populations, and the species is apparently increasing through exploitation of cultivated Araliaceae to the east of its native range. All records on cultivated hosts have been mapped as introductions: some records may be of deliberate introductions and others may result from seed windborne from native sites. Its status in the Kent chalk pits is uncertain.

It is found in western, southern and southern central Europe, reaching its most northerly extent in Ireland. In Majorca, and perhaps elsewhere, it is now largely restricted to man-made habitats. Material thought to be of this species has been recorded as an introduction in North Carolina, USA (Musselman 1982). It is also known as an introduction in South Africa where it had been misidentified as O. minor

O. hederae is often mistaken for the more frequent O. minor which may also grow on Hedera spp. All specimens reported to be of O. hederae from non-araliacean hosts have proved to be misidentifications. However, Jones (1987) claimed to have raised plants on Trifolium pratense. A yellow variant lacking anthocyanin has been reported on cultivated ivy in Hampshire (Brewis 1990).


F. J. Rumsey

Atlas text references

Atlas (238b)
Curtis TGF, McGough HN
1988.  The Irish Red Data Book. 1. Vascular Plants.
Jones (1987)
Meusel H, Jäger E, Rauschert S, Weinert E
1978.  Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 2. 2 vols.
Rumsey FJ, Jury SL
1991.  An account of Orobanche L. in Britain and Ireland. Watsonia. 18:257-295.
Stewart A, Pearman DA, Preston CD
1994.  Scarce plants in Britain.