Paris quadrifolia

Tracheophyta MagnoliopsidaLiliaceaeParisParis quadrifolia


A rhizomatous, perennial herb of moist, calcareous, usually ancient, woodland, and occasionally found in grikes on open limestone pavement. It flowers and fruits most freely in the open stages of the coppice cycle, but persists in deep shade, and is well adapted to such conditions in managed woodland. Generally lowland, but reaching 360 m at Great Asby Scar (Westmorland) and Garrigill (Cumberland).



World Distribution

Eurosiberian Boreo-temperate element.

© K.J. Walker, BSBI

Broad Habitats

Broadleaved, mixed and yew woodland

Light (Ellenberg): 3

Moisture (Ellenberg): 6

Reaction (Ellenberg): 7

Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 6

Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0

January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.2

July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 15.3

Annual Precipitation (mm): 877

Height (cm): 40

Perennation - primary


Life Form - primary

Non-bulbous geophyte (rhizome, corm or tuber)



Clonality - primary

Rhizome far-creeping

Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 714

Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 0

Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 0

Atlas Change Index: -0.68

JNCC Designations


External Species Accounts