Pinus nigra

Tracheophyta PinopsidaPinaceaePinusPinus nigra


P. nigra is found in plantations, shelter-belts, parks, churchyards and large gardens, locally becoming naturalised on heaths and sand dunes. Subsp. nigra prefers light soils; subsp. laricio tolerates a wider range of soils. Regeneration from seed is frequent. Lowland.



World Distribution

The species is a native of S. Europe, N. Africa and S.W. Asia. Subsp. nigra occurs in Austria, Italy and the Balkans and subsp. laricio in Corsica, S. Italy and Sicily.

Broad Habitats

Light (Ellenberg): 7

Moisture (Ellenberg): 3

Reaction (Ellenberg): 5

Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 2

Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0

January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.7

July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 15.5

Annual Precipitation (mm): 889

Height (cm): 4200

Perennation - primary


Life Form - primary

Mega-, meso- and microphanerophyte



Clonality - primary

Little or no vegetative spread

Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 1009

Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 25

Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 6

Weighted Changed Factor: 66

Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)


JNCC Designations


Atlas text references

Jalas & Suominen (1973)
James NDG
1982.  The Forester's Companion.
Meusel H, Jäger E, Weinert E
1965.  Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 1. 2 vols.
Mitchell (1972