A shrub of woods, hedges and fen-carr. Generally lowland, but reaching 455 m in Teesdale (N.W. Yorks.).
This species was recorded in Britain by 1568. Small fruited plants in fen-carr and by streams in woods may be native. However, this species is widely naturalised; large fruited plants near old habitations are clearly relics of cultivation. The distinction between alien and native records is now so confused that all records in Britain are mapped as if they are native; it is alien in Ireland. The increase since the 1962 Atlas may partly be due to improved recording.
Suboceanic Temperate element; widely naturalised outside its native range.
Light (Ellenberg): 5
Moisture (Ellenberg): 7
Reaction (Ellenberg): 7
Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 6
Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0
January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.3
July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 15.1
Annual Precipitation (mm): 944
Height (cm): 200
Perennation - primary
Life Form - primary
Clonality - primary
Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 1874
Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 0
Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 2
Atlas Change Index: 1.79
Weighted Changed Factor: 23
Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)
Atlas text references
1986. Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols.
Jalas & Suominen (1999)
1996. Flora Britannica.
1985. Cultivated fruits of Britain: their origin and history.
1982. Simpson's Flora of Suffolk.