Sanicula europaea

Tracheophyta MagnoliopsidaUmbelliferaeSaniculaSanicula europaea


A perennial herb of moist soil in deciduous woodland, often where Fagus, Fraxinus or Quercus spp. predominate; also locally in substantial hedge banks and shaded roadsides. In the north and west of its range it is sometimes found in relict woodland in gorges and in sheltered stream ravines. The substrate is usually calcareous or otherwise base-rich, but can occasionally be neutral or mildly acidic. Generally lowland, but reaching 500 m above Malham (Mid-W. Yorks.).



World Distribution

European Temperate element; also in C. Asia.

© K.J. Walker, BSBI

Broad Habitats

Broadleaved, mixed and yew woodland

Light (Ellenberg): 4

Moisture (Ellenberg): 5

Reaction (Ellenberg): 7

Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 5

Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0

January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.5

July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 14.7

Annual Precipitation (mm): 1090

Height (cm): 40

Perennation - primary


Life Form - primary




Clonality - primary

Little or no vegetative spread

Clonality - secondary

Rhizome shortly creeping

Comment on Clonality

slowly produces clones because long-lived (CPE)

Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 2025

Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 634

Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 0

Atlas Change Index: -0.98

Weighted Changed Factor: -26

Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)


JNCC Designations