A morphologically variable, perennial herb found in calcareous or other base-rich habitats where competition is low, including fixed dunes, scrubby banks, rocky lake and river edges, limestone and serpentine cliffs, limestone grassland and pavement and montane rock ledges. It also occurs in other habitats, including churchyards, hedge banks and roadsides, as a garden escape. 0-855 m (Snowdon, Caerns.).
The native distribution is stable, and much better recorded now than in the 1962 Atlas, but the species is apparently increasing as an alien in S. England.
Eurasian Boreo-temperate element.
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Light (Ellenberg): 7
Moisture (Ellenberg): 4
Reaction (Ellenberg): 6
Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 3
Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0
January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.4
July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 14
Annual Precipitation (mm): 1185
Height (cm): 70
Perennation - primary
Life Form - primary
Clonality - primary
Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 504
Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 89
Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 0
Atlas Change Index: 0.56
Weighted Changed Factor: -9
Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)
Atlas text references
1986. Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols.
Jalas & Suominen (1989)
1965. Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 1. 2 vols.