Trifolium dubium

Tracheophyta MagnoliopsidaFabaceaeTrifoliumTrifolium dubium


A winter-annual of hay meadows, waysides and waste places, and also frequent in lawns. Like T. campestre, it is most frequent in dry grasslands, but can be abundant too in winter-flooded meadows and damp pastures, and can thrive even in fairly nutrient-enriched situations. It also occurs in open habitats such as on rock outcrops, quarry spoil and railway ballast. Generally lowland, but reaching 530 m at Garrigill (Cumberland).



World Distribution

European Temperate element; widely naturalised outside its native range.

© Shannon, P

Broad Habitats

Neutral grassland (includes coarse Arrhenatherum grassland)

Light (Ellenberg): 7

Moisture (Ellenberg): 4

Reaction (Ellenberg): 6

Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 5

Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0

January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.6

July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 14.6

Annual Precipitation (mm): 1072

Height (cm): 15

Perennation - primary


Life Form - primary

Therophyte (annual land plant)



Clonality - primary

Little or no vegetative spread

Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 2548

Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 942

Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 14

Atlas Change Index: -0.11

Weighted Changed Factor: 30

Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)


JNCC Designations


Atlas text references

Atlas (109b)
Grime JP, Hodgson JG, Hunt R
1988.  Comparative Plant Ecology.
Hultén E, Fries M
1986.  Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols.