A perennial herb of lawns and churchyards, and also found on roadsides, paths, grassy banks and streamsides. It is self-incompatible, rarely setting seed in our area but often spreads from fragments after mowing. Generally lowland, but reaching 450 m at Nenthead (Cumberland).
This species was certainly cultivated in Britain by 1808 but was not widely grown until the 20th century. It was first recorded in the wild in 1838 but not reported again until 1927. Thereafter it spread rapidly, and was widespread at the time of the 1962 Atlas. Since then it has further increased and greatly consolidated its range.
Native of N. Turkey and the Caucasus.
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Light (Ellenberg): 7
Moisture (Ellenberg): 6
Reaction (Ellenberg): 7
Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 7
Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0
January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.6
July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 14.9
Annual Precipitation (mm): 990
Height (cm): 5
Perennation - primary
Life Form - primary
Life Form - secondary
Comment on Life Form
Clonality - primary
Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 2013
Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 397
Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 9
Atlas Change Index: 2.69
Weighted Changed Factor: 4
Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)
Atlas text references
Bangerter & Kent (1957
1980. Localised spread of Veronica filiformis, V. agrestis and V. persica. Journal of Applied Ecology. 17:815-826.
1986. Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols.
1978. Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 2. 2 vols.