A perennial herb found in all kinds of grassland habitats, ranging from lawns to montane communities irrigated by melting snow-beds; also found on coastal sand dunes and stabilised shingle, waysides and waste ground. It tolerates drought, and grows in most soils except the most nutrient-poor, permanently waterlogged or strongly acidic. 0-1210 m (Ben Lawers, Mid Perth).


A perennial herb of damp or wet habitats on a wide range of soils, including fen- and water-meadows, rush-pasture, marshes, streamsides, wet heath, springs and flushes on hill slopes and occasionally in wet woodland. It is also established from cultivation in churchyards, and on roadsides and waste ground. 0-770 m (Cross Fell, Cumberland).


These tuberous perennial herbs grow on calcareous to slightly acidic soil along stream banks, often in shade, in damp, open woodland and sometimes in damp meadows, and as aliens on roadsides, waste ground and rubbish tips. Generally lowland, but reaching 460 m at Quarnford (Staffs.).

Hybrid Monk`s-hood

A perennial with annually renewed tuberous rhizomes, found established in damp places on a range of soils, usually in shaded sites or in tall vegetation. Its habitats are more varied than those of other Aconitum taxa and include damp roadsides and pastures, waste ground and moist woodland. 0?460 m (Quarnford, Staffs.).


A rhizomatous perennial herb growing at the margins of streams, canals, ponds and lakes in shallow, nutrient-rich calcareous water. The European plant is a sterile triploid. Lowland.

Russian Knapweed

A perennial herb naturalised on waste ground at Hereford railway station (Herefs.). Lowland.


A perennial herb of shaded sites on limestone. Its habitats differ superficially, being found in the grikes of limestone pavement, on rock ledges, and in deciduous woodland, but all have the same characteristics of shade, low competition and a cool, protected root run. 0-450 m (Hawkswick Clowder, Mid-W. Yorks.).

Maidenhair Fern

A semi-evergreen fern found in areas with an oceanic climate on wet, calcareous cliffs where its rhizomes are protected in crevices; in the Aran Islands and the Burren (both Co. Clare) it grows in grikes in limestone pavement. Many inland records in sheltered warm sites, such as damp mortared walls, railway sidings and canal locks, arise from spores derived from cultivated plants. Lowland.


An arable weed of dry soils on chalk and limestone, also recorded from tracks, chalk pits and other disturbed habitats. Seed production is low but there is a long-lived soil seed bank. Most populations are small and restricted to field edges. Lowland.


A perennial rhizomatous herb of mesic brown earth soils on the shaded banks of rivers and streams, in deciduous woodlands and shaded hedge banks; also occasionally in shaded base-rich sites in mountains. This is a vernal species which disappears by May or June in the lowlands. It is self-fertile, reproducing by seed and vegetatively. 0-1065 m (Ben Lawers, Mid Perth).