A perennial herb of limestone grassland and grassy banks by roads and rivers in N. England where it may be locally abundant; also in limestone grassland in Scotland and Ireland. Rarely elsewhere as an escape. Lowland, to 570 m on Whernside (N.W. Yorks.).
A perennial herb, typically found in ungrazed or lightly-grazed base-poor grassy habitats in the C. and N. Scottish mountains; a depauperate form grows in heavily-grazed flushes, and screes below cliffs. In Teesdale and Craven it occurs on roadsides and in species-rich hay meadows. From 145 m near Selkirk (Selkirks.) to 1030 m (Cairngorm Corries, Easterness).
The largest population of this perennial apomict occurs in species-rich grazed pasture on shallow soil overlying Carboniferous limestone. Small populations have also been recorded from a rough pasture, from tall herbage in an ungrazed hay meadow and from a roadside verge. Lowland.
A dwarf perennial herb confined to tightly-grazed, moist, Festuca ovina grassland overlying Carboniferous limestone. From below 300 m to 610 m at Ingleborough (Mid-W. Yorks.).
A vigorous perennial herb, frequently grown in gardens and found naturalised on roadsides, riverbanks, rough ground and anywhere where garden refuse is dumped. It also occurs as a casual on rubbish tips. It reproduces mainly by seed, which is produced abundantly, but it can also spread by rhizome fragments. Generally lowland, but established at 520 m below Ben Lawers (Mid Perth).
A perennial herb of neutral grassland, occurring in unimproved, species-rich hay meadows, but confined to the margins of those which are intensively managed. It is also locally frequent on road verges, particularly those which support a hay meadow flora. From 150 m (Barnard Castle, N.W. Yorks.) to 450 m (near Harwood Beck, Co. Durham).
This perennial herb has been recorded in species-rich hay meadows, along the margins of those which are more intensively managed, and from unimproved pasture. The altitude range is c. 270-320 m in Weardale and Teesdale (Co. Durham).
A perennial herb of tightly-grazed base-rich grassland and herb-rich rock ledges on outcrops and cliffs; sometimes colonising damp scree and bare cracks in limestone and basalt. It seems to prefer moist soils, frequently occurring near waterfalls and seepages. From sea level in N. Scotland to 990 m on Ben Lawers (Mid Perth).
This perennial herb of neutral or mildly calcareous grassland occurs in lowland pastures and hay meadows, on upland hill-slopes, in rough grassy places, on river banks and streamsides, woodland borders and rides, and roadside verges. 0-885 m (Caenlochan, Angus).
An annual or short-lived perennial which grows in shallow, eutrophic water at the edge of lakes, rivers and fenland drains. Populations may arise from buried seed after disturbance. Lowland.