Achillea millefolium

Tracheophyta MagnoliopsidaAsteraceaeAchilleaAchillea millefolium


A perennial herb found in all kinds of grassland habitats, ranging from lawns to montane communities irrigated by melting snow-beds; also found on coastal sand dunes and stabilised shingle, waysides and waste ground. It tolerates drought, and grows in most soils except the most nutrient-poor, permanently waterlogged or strongly acidic. 0-1210 m (Ben Lawers, Mid Perth).



World Distribution

Eurasian Boreo-temperate element, but naturalised in N. America so distribution is now Circumpolar Boreo-temperate.

© S. Hammonds

Broad Habitats

Light (Ellenberg): 7

Moisture (Ellenberg): 5

Reaction (Ellenberg): 6

Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 4

Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 1

January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.5

July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 14.5

Annual Precipitation (mm): 1103

Height (cm): 45

Perennation - primary


Life Form - primary


Comment on Life Form

"The height refers to the flowering stem, not the low rosettes that overwinter"



Clonality - primary

Rhizome far-creeping

Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 2774

Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 968

Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 14

Atlas Change Index: 0.29

Weighted Changed Factor: -59

Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)


JNCC Designations


Atlas text references

Atlas (283a)
Grime JP, Hodgson JG, Hunt R
1988.  Comparative Plant Ecology.
Hultén E, Fries M
1986.  Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols.
Meusel H, Jäger EJ
1992.  Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 3. 2 vols.
Warwick SI, Black L
1982.  The biology of Canadian weeds. 52. Achillea millefolium L. s.l. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 62:163-182.