Aesculus hippocastanum

Tracheophyta MagnoliopsidaHippocastanaceaeAesculusAesculus hippocastanum


A tree of parkland, large gardens and estates, churchyards, urban streets and village greens; also a constituent of deciduous and mixed woodland. It is sometimes self-sown in scrubby areas, waste ground or rough grassland, and occasionally regenerates in woodland, but is rarely fully naturalised. Generally lowland, but reaching 505 m at Ashgill (Cumberland).



World Distribution

Native of the Balkan peninsula; other species in the family are found in S. & E. Asia and the Americas.

© S. Hammonds

Broad Habitats

Light (Ellenberg): 5

Moisture (Ellenberg): 5

Reaction (Ellenberg): 7

Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 7

Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0

January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.6

July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 14.8

Annual Precipitation (mm): 1014

Height (cm): 3200

Perennation - primary


Life Form - primary

Mega-, meso- and microphanerophyte



Clonality - primary

Little or no vegetative spread

Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 2186

Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 557

Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 12

Atlas Change Index: 1.08

Weighted Changed Factor: 38

Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)


JNCC Designations


Atlas text references

Atlas (97c)
Bean WJ
1970.  Trees and shrubs hardy in the British Isles, edn 8, I. A-C.
Mabey R
1996.  Flora Britannica.
Meusel H, Jäger E, Rauschert S, Weinert E
1978.  Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 2. 2 vols.
Mitchell AF
1996.  Alan Mitchell's Trees of Britain.