A tree of parkland, large gardens and estates, churchyards, urban streets and village greens; also a constituent of deciduous and mixed woodland. It is sometimes self-sown in scrubby areas, waste ground or rough grassland, and occasionally regenerates in woodland, but is rarely fully naturalised. Generally lowland, but reaching 505 m at Ashgill (Cumberland).
This species was introduced into cultivation in 1612 or 1615, and was recorded from the wild by 1870. It is now better recorded in S.W. England, Wales and Ireland than in the 1962 Atlas, but its overall range has changed little.
Native of the Balkan peninsula; other species in the family are found in S. & E. Asia and the Americas.
Light (Ellenberg): 5
Moisture (Ellenberg): 5
Reaction (Ellenberg): 7
Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 7
Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0
January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.6
July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 14.8
Annual Precipitation (mm): 1014
Height (cm): 3200
Perennation - primary
Life Form - primary
Clonality - primary
Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 2186
Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 557
Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 12
Atlas Change Index: 1.08
Weighted Changed Factor: 38
Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)
Atlas text references
1970. Trees and shrubs hardy in the British Isles, edn 8, I. A-C.
1996. Flora Britannica.
1978. Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 2. 2 vols.
1996. Alan Mitchell's Trees of Britain.