Allium ursinum

Tracheophyta MagnoliopsidaLiliaceaeAlliumAllium ursinum


A bulbous perennial herb of moist woodlands, sometimes growing in more open situations such as riversides and hedge banks and occasionally in rock crevices, in scree and on coastal cliff ledges. Regeneration is primarily by seed. Generally lowland, but reaching c. 450 m at Great Clowder, Malham (Mid-W. Yorks.).



World Distribution

European Temperate element.

© P. Shannon

Broad Habitats

Broadleaved, mixed and yew woodland

Light (Ellenberg): 4

Moisture (Ellenberg): 6

Reaction (Ellenberg): 7

Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 7

Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0

January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.5

July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 14.8

Annual Precipitation (mm): 1065

Height (cm): 45

Perennation - primary


Life Form - primary

Bulbous geophyte



Clonality - primary

Little or no vegetative spread

Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 2034

Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 371

Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 0

Atlas Change Index: 0.24

Weighted Changed Factor: 20

Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)


JNCC Designations


Atlas text references

Atlas (327b)
Grime JP, Hodgson JG, Hunt R
1988.  Comparative Plant Ecology.
Hultén E, Fries M
1986.  Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols.
Mabey R
1996.  Flora Britannica.
Meusel H, Jäger E, Weinert E
1965.  Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 1. 2 vols.
Tutin TG
1957.  Biological Flora of the British Isles. No. 63. Allium ursinum L. Journal of Ecology. 45:1003-1010.