An annual, now occurring mainly as a casual on rubbish tips and waste ground, and in gardens. It was formerly a frequent weed of arable fields and a contaminant of flax seed. Lowland.
C. sativa, cultivated in Europe since prehistoric times, was formerly a frequent casual. Most 19th century records were of escapes from cultivation for oil and fibre, and of grain aliens, but nearly all recent records arise from bird-seed mixtures.
Native range uncertain, but now widespread in Eurasia and introduced to N. America and elsewhere.
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Light (Ellenberg): 7
Moisture (Ellenberg): 4
Reaction (Ellenberg): 7
Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 6
Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0
January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.9
July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 15.6
Annual Precipitation (mm): 793
Height (cm): 100
Perennation - primary
Perennation - secondary
Life Form - primary
Life Form - secondary
Comment on Life Form
Clonality - primary
Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 248
Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 17
Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 3
Atlas text references
1985. Bird seed aliens in Britain. Watsonia. 15:237-252.
1986. Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols.
Jalas & Suominen (1996)
1991. Crucifers of Great Britain and Ireland. Botanical Society of the British Isles Handbook no. 6.
2000. Domestication of plants in the Old World, edn 3.