A rhizomatous perennial herb occurring as a naturalised garden escape or relic of cultivation in woodland, quarries, churchyards and on shaded roadsides. Lowland.
This species was being cultivated in Britain by 1629, but was not recorded as naturalised in the wild until 1903 (Cumberland).
Native of C. Europe.
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Atlas text references
Jalas & Suominen (1994)
1965. Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 1. 2 vols.
1991. Crucifers of Great Britain and Ireland. Botanical Society of the British Isles Handbook no. 6.