A perennial herb usually growing on damp base-rich, heavy (often clay) soils, in shaded habitats. It is found in deciduous woodland, by ditches, ponds, streams, in hedgerows and on track-sides. Reproduction by seed can be prolific. Lowland, but exceptionally at 410 m at Alston (Cumberland).
C. pendula has shown a very pronounced northerly expansion since the 1962 Atlas. It is now widely grown in gardens as an ornamental plant, and often escapes, so that the limits of its native range are totally obscure; all records are mapped here as if they are native.
European Southern-temperate element.
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