Conium maculatum

Tracheophyta MagnoliopsidaApiaceaeConiumConium maculatum


A biennial of damp places, such as ditches and river banks, and of drier habitats, including rough grassland, waste ground, rubbish tips and roadsides. It is a colonist of disturbed areas, particularly on dredged mud, sometimes forming large stands. Generally lowland, but reaching 305 m at Llynheillyn (Rads.).



World Distribution

As an archaeophyte C. maculatum has a Eurosiberian Southern-temperate distribution; it is widely naturalised outside this range.

Broad Habitats

Boundary and linear features (eg hedges, roadsides, walls)

Light (Ellenberg): 8

Moisture (Ellenberg): 5

Reaction (Ellenberg): 7

Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 8

Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0

January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.9

July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 15.2

Annual Precipitation (mm): 915

Height (cm): 250

Perennation - primary

Biennial, including monocarpic perennials

Life Form - primary




Clonality - primary

Little or no vegetative spread

Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 1847

Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 476

Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 13

Atlas Change Index: -0.02

Weighted Changed Factor: 13

Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)


JNCC Designations