Echium vulgare

Tracheophyta MagnoliopsidaBoraginaceaeEchiumEchium vulgare


A biennial of grassy and disturbed habitats on well-drained soils. It is found in bare places on chalk and limestone downs, on heaths, in quarries and chalk-pits, in cultivated and waste land, along railways and roadsides, and by the coast on cliffs, sand dunes and shingle. Generally lowland, but formerly reaching 365 m as an alien at Braemar (S. Aberdeen).



World Distribution

Eurosiberian Temperate element; widely naturalised outside its native range.

© P. Shannon

Broad Habitats

Calcareous grassland (includes lowland and montane types)

Light (Ellenberg): 8

Moisture (Ellenberg): 4

Reaction (Ellenberg): 7

Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 4

Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 1

January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.8

July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 15.6

Annual Precipitation (mm): 822

Height (cm): 90

Perennation - primary

Biennial, including monocarpic perennials

Life Form - primary




Clonality - primary

Little or no vegetative spread

Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 1066

Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 41

Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 9

Atlas Change Index: -0.24

Weighted Changed Factor: 15

Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)


JNCC Designations