Frangula alnus

Tracheophyta MagnoliopsidaRhamnaceaeFrangulaFrangula alnus


This deciduous shrub or small tree grows on a wide range of soils, but avoids drought-prone and permanently waterlogged sites. It is found in scrub on fen peat, on the edges of raised mires, on heaths and in valley mires, in scrub, hedgerows and in woodland. It regenerates strongly after cutting, burning or grazing. Generally lowland, but reaching 450 m at The Arch (Cards.).



World Distribution

Eurosiberian Temperate element; widely naturalised outside its native range.

© K.J. Walker, BSBI

Broad Habitats

Broadleaved, mixed and yew woodland

Light (Ellenberg): 6

Moisture (Ellenberg): 8

Reaction (Ellenberg): 5

Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 5

Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0

January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.8

July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 15.8

Annual Precipitation (mm): 881

Height (cm): 500

Perennation - primary


Life Form - primary

Mega-, meso- and microphanerophyte



Clonality - primary

Little or no vegetative spread

Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 712

Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 56

Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 0

Atlas Change Index: -0.16

Weighted Changed Factor: 16

Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)


JNCC Designations