A sprawling, evergreen herb typically found on mountains and moorlands amongst deep Calluna on hill slopes, and sometimes in Pinus sylvestris woods. It usually grows on acidic peaty soils, often overlying boulders, or in hollows where snow accumulates. From 45 m on Mull (S. Ebudes) to 1000 m (Coire Cheap, Westerness).
There have certainly been losses of this species over the past century due to changes in moorland management, although its distribution now appears to be stable. It may still be present in remote squares for which there are only pre-1987 records.
Circumpolar Boreo-arctic Montane element.
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Light (Ellenberg): 6
Moisture (Ellenberg): 6
Reaction (Ellenberg): 3
Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 3
Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0
January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 0.7
July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 11.7
Annual Precipitation (mm): 1760
Height (cm): 10
Perennation - primary
Life Form - primary
Clonality - primary
Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 171
Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 0
Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 0
Atlas Change Index: -0.38
RDB Species Accounts
Scarce Atlas Account
Lycopodium annotinum L.
This is a plant of upland heaths, flushes, grassland and open woods, and is typically found in hollows and on steep slopes with late snow-lie in various sorts of Calluna vulgaris and Vaccinium myrtillus heath. It is a calcifuge growing on a range of base-poor substrates, usually well drained, but often with a surface layer of mor humus beneath a carpet of mosses. Associated species include numerous common heathland plants and relatively uncommon boreal species such as Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Cornus suecica, Juniperus communis and Vaccinium uliginosum. In its southernmost extant locality in Langdale, it grows in acidic grassland with Agrostis spp., Festuca ovina and Nardus stricta. A predominantly upland plant, it reaches 950 metres in the Cairngorms, but descends to 45 metres on Mull. It is unaccountably rare to the north of Ross-shire.
L. annotinum is a long-lived perennial which spreads by means of stolons at a rate of 8 to 30 cm each year. Although sections of the plant may live for 15 to 20 years, the clone may persist at a site for at least 250 years. Strobili mature in late summer, but do not release their spores until October. The average number of spores produced per strobilus is close to a million and spore production may reach several hundred million. Spores have been estimated to take 6 to 7 years to germinate and the subterranean saprophytic gametophytes take at least 12 years to reach maturity. As a consequence the minimum time for completion of the life cycle is at least 25 years. Sexual reproduction is associated with disturbance, particularly fires, soil erosion and planting of conifers.
L. annotinum has a relatively stable distribution within the Scottish Highlands, but it is likely to be still under-recorded in this area. It has been lost from a few sites owing to frequent moor burning and the planting of conifers.
Within Europe L. annotinum is a widely distributed northern suboceanic plant, primarily found in boreal forests (Jalas & Suominen 1972). Almost circumboreal, it extends into the arctic and is found as far south as the Appalachian and Rocky mountains.
A. D. Headley
Atlas text references
1986. The modular growth of Lycopodium annotinum. Fern Gazette. 13:65-76.
1986. Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols.
Jalas & Suominen (1972)
1978. Ferns and their allies. The Island of Mull: a survey of its flora and environment. :12.1-12.7.
1997. The ferns of Britain and Ireland, edn 2.
1994. Scarce plants in Britain.