Milium effusum

Tracheophyta MagnoliopsidaPoaceaeMiliumMilium effusum


A perennial herb of damp, deciduous woods and shaded banks, where it grows on winter-wet, calcareous to mildly acidic clay and loam soils, and also over rocks in W. Scotland. It is regarded as an indicator of ancient woodland in some parts of E. England. However, it is able to colonise open sites which are disturbed by felling or fire, and there is evidence of spread to more recent woodland in some upland areas. 0-380 m (W. of Dockray, Cumberland).



World Distribution

Circumpolar Boreo-temperate element, with a disjunct distribution.

Broad Habitats

Broadleaved, mixed and yew woodland

Light (Ellenberg): 4

Moisture (Ellenberg): 5

Reaction (Ellenberg): 6

Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 5

Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0

January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.6

July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 15.3

Annual Precipitation (mm): 928

Height (cm): 150

Perennation - primary


Life Form - primary




Clonality - primary

Tussock-forming graminoid, may slowly spread

Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 1391

Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 91

Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 0

Atlas Change Index: 0.31

Weighted Changed Factor: -1

Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)


JNCC Designations


Atlas text references

Atlas (403a)
Grime JP, Hodgson JG, Hunt R
1988.  Comparative Plant Ecology.
Hultén E, Fries M
1986.  Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols.
Meusel H, Jäger E, Weinert E
1965.  Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 1. 2 vols.