A perennial herb of damp, deciduous woods and shaded banks, where it grows on winter-wet, calcareous to mildly acidic clay and loam soils, and also over rocks in W. Scotland. It is regarded as an indicator of ancient woodland in some parts of E. England. However, it is able to colonise open sites which are disturbed by felling or fire, and there is evidence of spread to more recent woodland in some upland areas. 0-380 m (W. of Dockray, Cumberland).
This species was mapped as `all records` in the 1962 Atlas. It is now better recorded, and there is no evidence of a genuine change in its overall distribution.
Circumpolar Boreo-temperate element, with a disjunct distribution.
There are no images in this gallery.