A biennial herb which forms small but persistent colonies on cliffs, banks and waste ground in coastal areas. These colonies usually have uncrisped leaves. The crisped form which is commonly grown in gardens occurs as a casual close to habitation both near the sea and inland. Lowland.
P. crispum has been cultivated in British gardens since at least 995 (Harvey, 1981). Although most records are casual, it is very persistent in many of its coastal sites. It is difficult to assess any changes in its distribution.
A cultivated species of uncertain origin which is now widely naturalised in Europe and other continents.
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