Prunella vulgaris

Tracheophyta MagnoliopsidaLamiaceaePrunellaPrunella vulgaris


A patch-forming perennial herb of neutral and calcareous grassland, growing in clearings in woods, in meadows, pastures and lawns, on roadsides and waste ground, typically associated with moist, fertile soils. It forms clonal patches in short-grazed turf and spreads by the detachment of daughter ramets. 0-755 m (Knock Fell, Westmorland), and 845 m on Great Dun Fell (Westmorland).



World Distribution

Circumpolar Wide-temperate element; widely naturalised outside its native range.

© M. Cotterill, IWNHAS

Broad Habitats

Light (Ellenberg): 7

Moisture (Ellenberg): 5

Reaction (Ellenberg): 6

Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 4

Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0

January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.5

July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 14.4

Annual Precipitation (mm): 1106

Height (cm): 30

Perennation - primary


Life Form - primary




Clonality - primary

Shortly creeping and rooting at nodes

Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 2783

Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 970

Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 14

Atlas Change Index: 0.6

Weighted Changed Factor: 18

Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)


JNCC Designations


Atlas text references

Atlas (246b)
Grime JP, Hodgson JG, Hunt R
1988.  Comparative Plant Ecology.
Hultén E, Fries M
1986.  Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols.
Meusel H, Jäger E, Rauschert S, Weinert E
1978.  Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 2. 2 vols.