A mat-forming, winter-green perennial, occurring in a range of wet habitats including mires, wet grassland, streamsides, river-banks and ditches, and especially characteristic of cattle-poached areas. 0-885 m (Helvellyn, Cumberland) with unlocalised records up to 1005 m in the Scottish Highlands.
This species was mapped as `all records` in the 1962 Atlas. It has declined in S. and E. England, and analysis of the database indicates that this has occurred since 1950, presumably due to drainage, the re-seeding of wet grasslands, or their conversion to arable.
European Temperate element; also in C. and E. Asia and N. America and widely naturalised outside its native range.
Light (Ellenberg): 7
Moisture (Ellenberg): 8
Reaction (Ellenberg): 5
Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 5
Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0
January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.5
July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 14.4
Annual Precipitation (mm): 1128
Height (cm): 40
Perennation - primary
Life Form - primary
Clonality - primary
Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 2570
Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 798
Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 9
Atlas Change Index: -0.1
Weighted Changed Factor: -15
Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)
Atlas text references
1988. Comparative Plant Ecology.
1986. Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols.
Jalas & Suominen (1983)
1965. Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 1. 2 vols.