Trifolium pratense

Tracheophyta MagnoliopsidaFabaceaeTrifoliumTrifolium pratense


A perennial herb, native in a wide range of grasslands other than on the most acidic soils, and also common in waste places. The map includes the large, agriculturally selected variants (var. sativum) that are extensively sown into stubble and as components of short-term leys. 0-850 m (Scottish Highlands).



World Distribution

Eurosiberian Temperate element, but widely naturalised so that distribution is now Circumpolar Temperate.

© M. Cotterill, IWNHAS

Broad Habitats

Light (Ellenberg): 7

Moisture (Ellenberg): 5

Reaction (Ellenberg): 7

Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 5

Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0

January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.6

July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 14.5

Annual Precipitation (mm): 1100

Height (cm): 45

Perennation - primary


Life Form - primary




Clonality - primary

Little or no vegetative spread

Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 2745

Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 976

Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 14

Atlas Change Index: -0.18

Weighted Changed Factor: -4

Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)


JNCC Designations


Atlas text references

Atlas (105a)
Grime JP, Hodgson JG, Hunt R
1988.  Comparative Plant Ecology.
Hultén E, Fries M
1986.  Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols.