A perennial herb of cool, damp habitats, including hay meadows, stream and river banks, lake margins, open woodland and rock ledges. It prefers basic soils, and is often associated with limestone. It is sensitive to grazing, but can persist as small, non-flowering plants in the uplands. 0-1005 m (Stuic, S. Aberdeen).
The map clearly shows the decline of this species in Britain, especially at the fringes of its range, which began before 1930. The main cause is the agricultural improvement of hill land by drainage and the application of fertiliser.
European Boreal-montane element.
Light (Ellenberg): 7
Moisture (Ellenberg): 7
Reaction (Ellenberg): 6
Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 4
Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0
January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 2.2
July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 13
Annual Precipitation (mm): 1517
Height (cm): 60
Perennation - primary
Life Form - primary
Clonality - primary
Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 856
Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 8
Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 0
Atlas Change Index: -0.73
Weighted Changed Factor: -28
Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)
Atlas text references
1988. The Irish Red Data Book. 1. Vascular Plants.
1997. A Flora of Cumbria.
1986. Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols.
Jalas & Suominen (1989)
1965. Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 1. 2 vols.
1999. Carmarthenshire rare plant register.