This usually annual species is found in shallow water and on the muddy edges of rivers, streams, ponds and lakes, in dune-slacks, and in clay-, gravel- and chalk-pits. Although often found with V. anagallis-aquatica, its habitats are more restricted, being more frequent on the muddy edges of standing waters. Lowland.
The distribution of V. catenata has changed little since the 1962 Atlas, but it is now much better recorded.
Circumpolar Temperate element, with a disjunct distribution.
Light (Ellenberg): 8
Moisture (Ellenberg): 10
Reaction (Ellenberg): 7
Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 8
Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0
January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.8
July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 15.6
Annual Precipitation (mm): 816
Height (cm): 50
Perennation - primary
Perennation - secondary
Life Form - primary
Life Form - secondary
Comment on Life Form
Clonality - primary
Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 956
Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 249
Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 4
Atlas Change Index: 0.37
Weighted Changed Factor: -12
Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)
Atlas text references
1997. Notes on Veronica anagallis-aquatica agg. BSBI News. 75:15-17.
1986. Atlas of north European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. 3 vols.
1978. Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 2. 2 vols.
1997. Aquatic plants in Britain and Ireland.