Viola tricolor

Tracheophyta MagnoliopsidaViolaceaeViolaViola tricolor

Ecology

An annual or perennial herb, found on dunes and other sandy areas, on acidic grassland on heaths and hills, and in cultivated ground, gardens and waste places. 0-460 m (Clun Forest, Salop), and reportedly to 575 m in Scotland.

Status

Native

World Distribution

European Temperate element; widely naturalised outside its native range.

Broad Habitats

Light (Ellenberg): 8

Moisture (Ellenberg): 4

Reaction (Ellenberg): 6

Nitrogen (Ellenberg): 4

Salt Tolerance (Ellenberg): 0

January Mean Temperature (Celsius): 3.4

July Mean Temperature (Celsius): 14.6

Annual Precipitation (mm): 992

Height (cm): 20

Perennation - primary

Annual

Perennation - secondary

Perennial

Life Form - primary

Therophyte (annual land plant)

Life Form - secondary

Hemicryptophyte

Comment on Life Form

"Ssp. tricolor, which is annual, is much the commonest"

Woodiness

Herbaceous

Clonality - primary

Little or no vegetative spread

Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: 1691

Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 243

Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 3

Atlas Change Index: -1.52

Weighted Changed Factor: 13

Weighted Change Factor Confidence (90%)

27

JNCC Designations

NBNSYS0000002944