Xanthium strumarium

Tracheophyta MagnoliopsidaAsteraceaeXanthiumXanthium strumarium

Ecology

A tall annual of estuarine shores, rubbish tips, docks and waste ground, originating mainly from grain, wool, oil-seed and soya bean waste. It is usually casual, sometimes persisting for a few years. Lowland.

Status

Neophyte

World Distribution

The native range of X. strumarium is obscure; it is frequent in C. & S. Europe and a widespread weed in warmer climates throughout the world.

JNCC Designations

NBNSYS0000004361

Atlas text references

Clement (1981b)
Lousley JE
1961.  A census list of wool aliens found in Britain, 1946-1960. Proceedings of the Botanical Society of the British Isles. 4:221-247.
Meusel H, Jäger EJ
1992.  Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäischen Flora. Volume 3. 2 vols.
Wade AE, Kay QON, Ellis RG, National Museum of Wales
1994.  Flora of Glamorgan.
Weaver SE, Lechowicz MJ
1983.  The biology of Canadian weeds. 56. Xanthium strumarium L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 63:211-225.